Batakov, E. A. Effect of Silybum marianum oil and legalon on lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant systems in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Eksp.Klin Farmakol. 2001;64(4):53-55. See the summary. 1. Albrecht M et al Z Klin Med (1992) 47 (2): 87-92. 2. Salmi H & Sarna S.
Scand J Gastroenterology 1982; 17: 517-21. 3. Ferenci P et al J Hepatology 1989; 9: 105-13 4. Butorova L, et al. Exp Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;3:85-91 5. Saller R et al. Drugs 2001; 61 (14) : 2035-63 6. Dehmlow C et al. Hepatology, 1996; 23: 749-54 7.
Trappoliere M, et al. Zeitschrift für Hepatologie. 2009;50:1102–1111 8. Feher J, et al. Orvosi Hetilab. 1989;130:2723-2727. 9. Doehmer J, et al. In vitro toxicology. 2008; 22:610-617Some of these investigations were conducted with funds from Rottapharm/Madaus, the manufacturer of Legalon. – For more information: www.flordis.com.au/product/legalon#sthash.Pp58KSaa.dpuf The actively used part of MT is plant crops (e.g. whole fruits, seeds, oilcake or oil) (Figure 1).
It is actively used for medicinal purposes in the production of phytomedicines and dietary supplements, but can also be added to baked goods. Fortifying bread with MT oil and oilseed meal improves bread quality and can help support proper liver function and provide an additional source of amino acids, minerals and vitamins. Several reports demonstrate the benefits of oilseed meal as a supplement to improve the welfare and survival of livestock (see Section 3.4). The question then is what happens to the remaining parts of the plant. Are they wasted? TM leaves are sometimes used to prepare salads. Adding the above-ground portion of MT to animal feed may have nutritional benefits and help improve weight gain and survival in livestock (Andrzejewska et al., 2015; Bagno et al., 2020). It is doubtful whether the aerial part of the plant is used as a staple feed for animals due to its low nutritional value (Stastnik et al., 2020). The aerial part represents 70 to 80% of the entire plant and can potentially be used as a source of biofuel. Artichoke contains significant amounts of polyphenols, sesquiterpene lactones, terpenoids, carotenoids and chlorophylls (Turkiewicz et al., 2019; Zeaiter et al., 2019; Rocchetti et al., 2020) (Table 3). Artichoke is an excellent source of inulin, minerals (e.g. potassium and phosphorus) and vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) (Bundy et al., 2008; Zeaiter et al., 2019).
The content of secondary plant substances can vary considerably depending on the taxonomic variant, variety or hybrid plant (Turkiewicz et al., 2019). Artichoke bracts have increased concentrations of inulin and polyphenols (Turkiewicz et al., 2019). Analysis of phytochemicals in seed-propagated artichoke hybrids revealed that artichoke leaves contain >90 polyphenols and >120 sesquiterpene lactones (Rocchetti et al., 2020). Seven varieties were studied by Rocchetti and others (Rocchetti et al., 2020). The authors reported significant differences in the composition of the bioactive compounds present in these varieties. As Turkiewicz and others have proven, the health benefits of artichokes depended on the content of bioactive phytochemicals present in the varieties and hybrids (Turkiewicz et al., 2019). TM oil, oilcake or oilseeds may strengthen bakery products (Semenkina, 2010; Ataei Nukabadi et al., 2021) (Table 1). MT fruits contain a complex of biologically active substances (vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, a significant amount of fiber and amino acids) (Semenkina, 2010). MT seed oil is enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids. Adding TM to baked goods can increase nutritional value by adding extra protein, linoleic acid, vitamin E, and calcium.
The presence of flavonolignan in TM oilseed meal may also support liver function. Matt-flavonolignans may help increase bone calcium absorption when added to baked goods in combination with fat-free milk (Semenkina, 2010; Nekrasova and Popov, 2020). Adding nettle leaves and TM seed powder to sponge cake may lower blood sugar levels (Ataei Nukabadi et al., 2021) and improve liver function. One last thing: there are more types / manufacturers Legalon Forte and only “Legalon Forte Madaus” uses the formulation Eurosil 85. Legalon forte other manufacturers such as EmraMed and others are probably not made in Germany and do not use Eurosil 85. I contacted earlier some of these manufacturers who were not familiar with Eurosil 85 and told me that their products were imported into Germany. Here is a link to a product that does not use it:www.idealo.de/preisvergleich/OffersOfProduct/4949294_-legalon-f. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, food is a “substance composed primarily of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and other nutrients used in the body of an organism to maintain growth and vital processes and provide energy” (Britannica Encyclopaedia., 2020). The Japanese government first introduced the term “functional foods” in the early 1980s (Martirosyan and Singh, 2015). Later, functional foods were introduced to the European and American markets (Martirosyan and Singh, 2015).
A functional diet “may provide health benefits beyond traditional nutrients” (Thomas & Earl, 1994). In 1994, a new category of natural products, a dietary supplement, was introduced to consumers (1994). The Health and Dietary Supplement Education Act (DSHEA) describes dietary supplements as dietary supplements to supplement the diet and may contain plants, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, body tissues, enzymes and probiotics (1994). Dietary supplements are generally poorly regulated by medical authorities. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), approximately 50% of adults in the U.S. regularly use herbal medicines (Gottlieb, 2019). Phytomedicines, another category of natural products, are purified extracts from different parts of the plant or single-molecule phytochemicals isolated from natural products. These products are strictly regulated by regulatory agencies around the world (Enioutina et al., 2020). The U.S. FDA considers highly purified herbal extracts to be botanical drugs and regulates them in the same way as conventional synthetic drugs (Enioutina et al., 2020).
Chicory contains many biologically active components, including inulin, sesquiterpene lactones (e.g., chicorioisides B and C, sonchuside C), flavonoids, alkaloids, caffeic acid derivatives (e.g., chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid), vitamin E, β-carotene, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium) (Al-Snafi, 2016; Perovic et al., 2021) (Table 4). Different parts of the plant may contain different amounts of bioactive components. Plant roots are enriched with inulin and tannins, but contain small amounts of phenolic acids (Al-Snafi, 2016).