Oligohydramnios Definition English

In addition to treating the underlying cause, antenatal management includes maximum weekly measurements of vertical pockets and non-stress tests, which have been shown to reduce the occurrence of unexplained fetal death. Fetal growth should be evaluated in series. Maternal hydration status also plays an important role in treatment, especially with oligohydramnios isolated in the third trimester. [10] The MPV measures the deepest area of your uterus to check amniotic fluid levels. If your MPV is less than 2 centimeters, you have oligohydramnios. Definition Name A condition characterized by a lack of amniotic fluid Supplement Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds the developing fetus in the amniotic sac. This environment protects the baby from injury and plays an important role in the development of the fetus. The volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus develops and grows. It increases from about 25 ml to 400 ml from the 10th week to the 20th week of gestational age. And by the 28th week it reaches a plateau of 800 ml. At birth, there is about 1 L of amniotic fluid.1 However, there are cases where there is a lack of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac. This condition is called oligohydramnios. The amount of amniotic fluid below the typical normal level may imply a pregnancy problem.

The appearance of oligohydramnios causes clubs of the feet and hands, contractures of the limbs and hypoplastic lungs. A hypoplastic lung is an underdeveloped and potentially fatal lung. Underdeveloped lung caused by oligohyramnios can lead to inefficient lung function, especially oxygenation, and perinatal death. Oligohydramnios is associated with prerenal, placental failure, low-potency heart failure, fetal death, renal agenesis, polycystic diseases, multicystic dysplasia, postrenal, uPJ obstruction, megaureters, posterior urethral valves, urethral agenesis, etc. The etiology is often uncertain, but can lead to pulmonary hypoplasia and death, kidneys, IUGR, prematurity of membranes. Origin of the word: oligo- (little) Also called: oligohydramnios complicates 4.4% of all pregnancies during downtime. The incidence of oligohydramnios is less than 1% in early pregnancy. [7] The development of oligohydramnios may be idiopathic or have a maternal, fetal or placental cause.

[4] Once the initial diagnosis of oligohydramnios is made, the next step is to take a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by diagnostic tests if indicated. [2] After diagnosis, it is often necessary to consult with maternal-fetal medicine specialists and neonatologists who can help develop an optimal treatment plan to limit the risk of complications for both the mother and the fetus. Care plans include antepartum management, timing of delivery, and postpartum care, each targeting the underlying etiology of oligohydramnios. [13] Treatment and prognosis for oligohydramnios vary considerably depending on the underlying etiology, gestational age at diagnosis, and severity of oligohydramnios. Diagnosis of oligohydramnios in the second trimester is more likely to be associated with fetal or maternal abnormalities, while diagnosis in the third trimester is more likely to be of unexplained origin. In one study, the etiology of oligohydramnios was unexplained in only 4% of pregnancies in the second trimester, while 52% of patients diagnosed in the third trimester were idiopathic. Only 10.2 percent of fetuses diagnosed in the second trimester survived, while the survival rate of fetuses diagnosed in the third trimester was 85.3 percent. [12] Once we have gathered all the anatomical and diagnostic information about your baby, our team will meet with you to discuss the results. Since oligohydramnios is associated with an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, we recommend that you monitor your pregnancy closely, including additional ultrasounds. Potter`s syndrome is a condition caused by oligohydramnios.

Affected fetuses develop pulmonary hypoplasia, limb deformities and characteristic faces. Bilateral agenesis of the fetal kidneys is the most common cause due to lack of fetal urine. If you notice fluid leaking from your vagina, talk to your doctor. This may be a sign of oligohydramnios. Your provider will watch for other signs, such as if you`re not gaining enough weight or if the baby isn`t growing as fast as he should. There are several additional complications to be aware of during the process of birth of a pregnancy complicated by oligohydramnios. These include an increased risk of umbilical cord compression, meconiologic aspiration, caesarean section, fetal heart rate slowing, and non-reactive fetal activity. [1] Administration of 1-2 litres of oral or intravenous fluid during labour has been shown to temporarily increase HCV and reduce umbilical cord compression during labour. [10] The care and treatment of patients with amniotic fluid diseases relies on interprofessional communication between multiple providers to ensure proper screening, diagnosis and management of these diseases during the antepartum, partial and postpartum periods.

Clinically trained obstetricians or midwives often detect oligohydramnios during routine antenatal care visits. In oligohydramnios diagnosed in the second trimester, pulmonary hypoplasia is the most significant predictor of fetal mortality. The mortality rate of oligohydramnios in the second trimester can be as high as 90%, with pulmonary hypoplasia accounting for 87% of these deaths. The most severe pulmonary hypoplasia occurs with oligohydramnios before or during the gestational age of 16 to 24 weeks, when the terminal sacs of the fetal lung develop. Low AFV in the second and early third trimester also increases the likelihood of limb contractures and birth defects due to compression of the fetal parts. [12] Diagnosis of oligohydramnios is made by performing a transabdominal ultrasound of the abdomen. There are two methods that can be used to make the diagnosis. The first is the use of an amniotic fluid index (AFI). In this method, the sonographer measures the amniotic fluid in each of the four quadrants of the abdomen (upper right quadrant, upper left quadrant, lower right quadrant, lower left quadrant) and adds the values together. For reference, a normal AFI is 5-25 cm.

An AFI 25 cm is considered polyhydramnios. Randomised controlled trials have shown that the use of AFI may lead to an increase in the number of false positive diagnoses of oligohydramnios, and recommend using the measurement of a single deepest amniotic fluid bag (PDS) to diagnose oligohydramnios instead. [1] If you have a healthy pregnancy and get oligohydramnios towards the end of your pregnancy, you probably don`t need treatment. Your provider may want to see you more often. She may want to have weekly ultrasounds or more to check the amount of amniotic fluid. The AFI checks the depth of amniotic fluid in four areas of your uterus. These amounts are then added together. If your AFI is less than 5 centimeters, you have oligohydramnios. The prognosis for babies with oligohydramnios is related to the underlying cause of the disease, as well as the drop in amniotic fluid levels and whether levels have become low during pregnancy. Babies who develop oligohydramnios at 23 or 24 weeks usually have adequate lung development and an excellent prognosis, depending on when they are born during pregnancy.

Oligohydramnios is diagnosed by ultrasound. In some cases – for example, if the baby has a birth defect that affects the kidneys or bladder – oligohydramnios can be seen on ultrasound 20 weeks or even earlier. In other cases, such as rupture of the membrane or poor placental function, fluid levels may be normal in early pregnancy and low later. Babies with oligohydramnios can be delivered vaginally. However, they have an increased risk of being in an abnormal position during childbirth (not “presenting”) upside down and of having temporary decreases (slowdowns) in their heart rate. Each of these situations may require a caesarean section. During labor, your baby will be closely monitored and your doctor will be prepared for any complications or results. In some cases with twins, oligohydramnios is caused by twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTT), a serious placenta-related condition in which one twin is surrounded by too little amniotic fluid and the other is surrounded by too much.